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龙8娱乐app下载报道How is Nitrogen Lost? _龙8娱乐app下载官网资讯

Volatilization is the loss of ammonia gas (NH3) to the atmosphere that occurs when urea fertilizer is hydrolized at the soil surface by urease enzymes.

  • Urea hydrolysis converts urea to ammonium (soil stable)
  • Urea hydrolysis increases soil pH which can increase ammonium conversion to volatile ammonia
  • Ammonia gas at the soil surface can volatize into the atmosphere



Leaching and denitrification: After nitrogen fertilizer application, naturally occuring soil bacteria quickly convert ammonium into nitrate in a two-step process called nitrification. This process is impacted by many factors including soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil pH. However, once converted to nitrates, nitrogen is subject to loss. Nitrate is prone to leaching with precipitation or irrigation. It can also be lost through denitrification or volatilization. Nitrogen losses commonly approach 25% of the applied nitrogen and can reach as high as 50-60% in some situations (Cassman, 2002). These losses are significant since the global market for nitrogen fertilizer is estimated at 113 million MT (IFA, 2014). It means that costly nitrogen fertilizer inputs are lost to the environment and not utilized by the crops.

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